Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again. A classic dissonance experiment by Aronson and Mills demonstrates the basic idea. When the S arrived for the experiment on “Measures of Performance” he had to wait for a few minutes in the secretary’s office.

The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. We will have more to say concerning this explanation in discussing the results of our carlsmiht. Thus, with self-selection of who did and who did not make the required overt statement and with varying percentages festiinger subjects in the different conditions who did make the requsted statement, no interpretation of the data can be unequivocal.

We are certainly justified in concluding that the S s in the One Dollar condition did not improvise more nor act more convincingly. They were told that a sample of students would be interviewed after having served as S s.

The E then removed the tray and spools and placed in front of the S a board containing 48 square pegs.

Cognitive Dissonance

The results are weakly in line with what one would expect if the dissonance were somewhat reduced in this manner. The S s were told it was necessary for the experiment. With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling it with spools, and festinnger on.

carls,ith What is more, as one might expect, the percentage of subjects who complied increased as the size of the offered reward increased. Specifically, as applied to our results, this a1ternative explanation would maintain that perhaps, for some reason, the S s in the One Dollar condition worked harder at telling the waiting girl that the tasks were fun and enjoyable.


Retrieved from ” https: Festinger and Carlsmith’s study now began to treat the 71 subjects in different ways such as to investigate the cognitive consequences of induced compliance to see whether there would be any evidence of Cognitive Dissonance, where the student concerned was psychologically di-stressed between his actual views and the role he found himself taking on in compliance with the performance of festingdr tasks set by the experimenter.

The mean ratings for the One Dollar destinger Twenty Dollar conditions, averaging the ratings of the two independent raters, are presented in Table 2.

Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive dissonance consequences of forced compliance

Let us consider a person who privately holds opinion “X” but has, as a result of pressure brought to bear on him publicly stated that he believes “not X.

I hope you did enjoy it. In the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition, carlsmoth had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage. Take it with you wherever you go. Method Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers.

The students will be interviewed after participating in the experiment and were encouraged festonger be completely honest in these interviews. The questions are as follows:.

Classics in the History of Psychology — Festinger & Carlsmith ()

Why this might have been the carsmith is, of course, not immediately apparent. This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the S s.

Comparison of the effectiveness of improvised versus non-improvised role-playing in producing opinion change. The present experiment was listed as a two-hour experiment dealing with “Measures of Performance.

A rating of the amount of time in the discussion that the S spent discussing the tasks as opposed festinge going off into irrelevant things.

Actually this finding by Kelman is consistent with the theory we will outline below but, for a number of reasons is not conclusive. A common way to reduce dissonance is to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the rejected alternative. In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such carlsmit.


Notice that dissonance theory does not state that these modes of dissonance reduction will actually work, only that individuals who are in a state of cognitive festinber will take steps to reduce the extent of their dissonance.

Forced compliance theory

By Saul McLeodupdated Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. This study consisted of two experiments. Wikipedia articles that are too technical from December All articles that are too technical Articles needing expert attention from December All articles needing expert attention Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November Festingef data, feztinger did not support this idea.

Select from one of the other courses available: Let us think of the sum of all the dissonances involving some particular cognition as “D” and the sum of all the consonances as “C.

This article is a part of the guide: Forced compliance theory is the idea that authority or some other perceived higher-ranking person can force festijger lower-ranked individual to make statements or perform acts that violate their better judgment.

The study built on previous research that stated when individuals are not granted the freedom to agree or disagree with the task, signs of dissonance are not detected. Cognitive dissonance theory describes the unpleasant feeling that results from believing two contrary ideas at the same time. Don’t have time for it all now?

That is, in the One Dollar condition they may have rehearsed it more mentally, thought up more ways of saying it, may have said it more convincingly, and so on.

Only recently has there been any experimental work festjnger to this question. Languages Magyar Edit links. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. A fraction of the carksmith were thanked and let go after being interviewed by another experimenter regarding ways on how the presentation of the boring tasks can be improved for future purposes.

Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on “how enjoyable the tasks were” but weaker.