Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available. Click here to visit our frequently asked questions about HTML5 video. View Condicionamiento Clasico y Operante from BIOLOGY at National University College. Nombre: _Digmarie Rivera Torres_ Fecha.

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Ten years of research on letter string problem solving by analogical transfer. Figure 4 shows the average number of correct responses of all experimental subjects for condiciona,iento problem and each experimental condition.

In order to guarantee that the subjects would receive random reinforcement, previous to the application of the booklet, a coin was tossed fifteen times.

SEMANA 3. Condicionamiento clásico y operante – Aprendizaje y memoria

Fases del condicionamiento operante. Hay que tener en cuenta que a todas las personas no les resultan atractivos los mismos reforzadores. Los organismos podemos elegir una u otra conducta estando cada una de ellas bajo clxsico programa de reforzamiento diferente. Results showed analogical transfer was considerably hindered in the group where the practice problem was superficially different from the test problem thus confirming the findings of many other scientists, see for example: In both graphs, the “Y” axis shows the average probability of emitting a correct answers; the “X” axis shows the experimental conditions.

The fourth and last condicionamientoo presented twelve problems from booklet two and subsequently twelve problems from booklet one.


A perceptual test of intelligence. The average probability of emitting a correct response was used as dependent variable. The random reinforcement group did not differ from any experimental or control condition. Houston, we have a problem!

Additionally, these same studies have shown that presenting or not the complete alphabet to the students, previous to their solutions of letter string problems, has no statistical effects on their ability to solve them; thus no attempt was made to measure alphabetical abilities in the students, previous to their participation in the experiment. Future studies may help develop this issue.

Send the link below via email or IM Copy. The effect is consistent and significant independently of the type of problem assessed direct or inverse. One possible explanation for the relatively modest effects reported in the first experiment appears when the mean probability of producing a correct answer, of both experimental conditions, are compared.

Delete comment or cancel. In order to assess the effects of practice on the dependent variables, regression equations relating practice as independent variable and “correct” answers as dependent variable were calculated for each one of the six different groups. Cada vez que Marta se queja de dolor de cabeza, su madre la dice que descanse y hace por ella las tareas de la casa que le tocaban a Marta. This effect was initially described by Skinner and termed “reflex reserve;” subsequent studies have repeatedly shown that once a particular response has been reinforced, it persists for a time in the absence of reinforcement, and even in spite of punishment see for instance Nevin, ; ; ; ; ; The control group was required to solve a problem that was unrelated to the test item.


Programas simples de reforzamiento: The authors manipulated several aspects of the procedure, designed to favor analogical transfer, however analogical transfer effects could not be evidenced. Another research possibility would be to try to replicate the delay gradient effect on letter string problem solving. Figure 1shows cumulative success as a function of solving consecutive problems.

The negative findings produced so far have been relatively “shocking” to cognitive scientists because most of them have occurred in college students, and the experimental procedures have been relatively simple.

Constrain to simple back and forward steps. In the second booklet the model letter string was always presented in alphabetical order and test problems could be in either in alphabetical or inverse order for example ABC: The effect of delay and of intervening events on reinforcement value. As such the learning research produced during the last hundred years should not be put aside.

The data produced by the present study, also suggest that operant conditioning plays an important role on letter string problem solving and on those behavioral effects frequently classified as analogical transfer.

As was mentioned in the introduction of the first experiment, the problems selected for the first experimental group, had previously been identified as “hard” problems, and thus they produced a more pronounced learning curve that was statistically detected by the regression condiciohamiento.

Due to the fact that practice and reinforcement effects have not been systematically assessed in the study of analogical transfer, and considering condicionamiemto some studies have showed that practice may enhance analogical learning, the purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of these independent variables on letter string problem solving.

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For further information regarding the present study, the first author may be contacted at: The first study, suggests that the experimental procedures employed in the first study may considerably enhance the successful solution of letter string problems; additionally, the results suggest that the punishment of “correct” answers considerably hinders the solution of these same problems. The fact that subjects exposed exclusively condicilnamiento “direct” problems, produced substantially higher numbers of correct responses than those subjects exposed exclusively to “inverse” problems, suggests that transitions from “easy” to “hard” cpndicionamiento are associated with higher persistence effects than transitions from “hard” to “easy” problems.


Si decidimos utilizar un procedimiento de marcado, debemos indicar marcar la respuesta que queremos que aumente en frecuencia de manera inmediata y, posteriormente, entregar el reforzador o consecuente, recordando la conducta marcada. In general, experimental groups produced a more homogenous performance than control conditions the exception was group five, the “no cindicionamiento control condition that shows homogeneous performance by most subjects.

The third control condition was identical to the second experimental condition with the exception that the subjects received no feedback for their responses. Discussion In general, the results of the present study suggest that reinforcement contingencies had limited effects on the production of correct responses. Subjects were presented with an example of letter string problem solving different from that employed in the booklets.

Experiment 1 showed that letter string problem solving is significantly impaired by the punishment of correct answers; it also showed that the deleterious effects of punishment increase with exposure to the experimental procedures; practice also increases the probability of producing a correct answer in at least one experimental condition.

As a matter of fact, a number of studies have assessed practice effects on analogical transfer by exposing subjects to more than one practice problem usually two or threebefore presenting them with the test problem. In general, Figure 5 shows that the probability of producing a correct answer in the last twelve problems was higher in the “direct” conditions than in the inverse conditions.

El condicionamiento operante de la solución de problemas de secuencias de letras

Experiment 1 Due to the fact that practice and reinforcement effects have not been systematically assessed in the study of analogical transfer, and considering that some studies have showed that practice may enhance analogical learning, the purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of these independent variables on condicipnamiento string problem solving.

Reinforcement schedules and response strength. Perhaps in a future study different response strategies to letter string problems could be associated with different reinforcement densities.

Regarding the effects of the independent variables on solution times, reinforcement contingencies did not produce significant effects, however practice significantly decreased response times in most groups and in those groups where no significant effects were found, a decreasing function is always found.